Roughage. The main source of fiber, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the polygastric stomach, the synthesis of microbial protein. Types of roughage: hay, straw, haylage, branches. Straw — dried culms (wheat, barley, millet, sorghum, etc.). Quality straw has humidity of 18-20%. Haylage is fermented grass. To prepare haylage, it is necessary to take grass, beet tops, corn, alfalfa and to ferment them without access of oxygen. Haylage preparation technology is similar to silage technology, but haylage retains more dry matter, it is less acidic than silage.
Branch fodder is collected by cutting the trees with thin branches. The perfect trees for this purpose are birch, maple, linden, etc. This diet is a partial alternative to hay and straw.
Succulent feed — silage, roots, pumpkin and zucchini. Succulent feed for cattle of vegetable origin is the basis for the increasing of milking capacity of cows, because it contains more water (70-90%) than dry matter. The norm for 1 cow per day is 5-7 kg.
Silage is prepared by lactic fermentation of green mass of corn, sorghum, lupine, amaranth, alfalfa, clover. When preparing combined silage, in addition to grass, stems and green parts of plants, roots, tops, carrots, sugar and fodder beets are added to the mass. This type of feed should not be neglected. In the diet of cattle roots are responsible for good digestibility of feed, contain a lot of fiber, water, sugar, protein. Additionally, carrots, beets, Jerusalem artichokes are inexpensive. Cow owners often grow roots and pumpkins on their plots, and it makes possible for them to further reduce the cost of cattle rations without skimping on feed quality.
Annually 1 cow requires 40-45 hwt of silage, 30-35 hwt of root crops and bulbs.
Green feed. This is the grass of pastures, legumes, sedges. Green feed is one of the cheapest. At the same time they have a high biological value, contain vitamins, minerals, lipids, B vitamins. Green grass has a high content of carotene,150-280 mg per 1 kg of dry matter. Legumes have the greatest nutritional value in this group, cereals are in the second place, and grasses are in the third place. Farmers who raise dairy cattle, it is reasonable to grow alfalfa, clover, sainfoin, Sudan grass, phacelia, amaranth, meadow grass to provide for a continuous green feed conveyor.
By-products of the food industry. Cattle respond positively to the use of treacle and molasses in the diet. These remnants of the syrup from which the sugar was obtained are molasses. About 35 kg of sugar, 540 kg of raw pulp and 40 kg of molasses are obtained from a ton of sugar beets. Molasses contains 65% of dry matter, which is instant sugar. This product is absorbed by the cow's body by 90%. Molasses stimulates appetite, salivation, increases digestion of food due to betaine, amino acids.
The benefits of using the product include:
No more than 15% of molasses dry matter is introduced into the diet of cattle. According to feeding norms, it is 0.4 kg of dry matter per 100 kg of live weight, but the maximum daily portion is not more than 2.5 kg of molasses. If the recommendation is not observed, and you do not provide enough fiber, you will get acidosis. When using sugar beet pulp for feeding, the amount of product is reduced to 1.5 kg per cow per day.
Concentrated feed in the form of individual cereals and compound feed. Compound feed for cattle is a mixture of crushed, extruded cereals, vegetable protein (soybean meal or sunflower meal), biologically active substances, macro — and micronutrients, functional additives. Compound feed plants produce concentrates for livestock in granular form, briquettes. Complete compound feeds (usually starters or growth feed) and PMVS (protein, mineral and vitamin supplement), premixes are available for purchase.
Ready-made compound feeds and PMVS in granular form:
In the availability of a good own fodder base (fields with perennial grass, good pasture nearby, a large amount of green fodder) it is more profitable to create a diet using PMVS. In the daily menu, concentrate accounts for 20% of the total feed. The value of PMVS and premixes in the amino acid profile. The product contains essential amino acids necessary for milk synthesis, high fertility, good health of livestock.
Salt brick. The body of cattle is deficient in chlorine and sodium from hay, succulent feed. Chlorine is indispensable for the synthesis of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, support of homeostasis. Additionally, table salt has antibacterial properties, suppresses pathogenic microflora in the digestive system of the animal.
The daily norm of salt to a cow is calculated as follows: the animal needs 5 grams of NaCl per 100 kilograms of weight, plus 4 grams for each liter of milk. But this calculation is relevant if you do not use feed, premix or PMVS. Because salt has already been added to the finished concentrates.
The implementation of the genetic potential of dairy cows by 50% depends on providing them with metabolic energy, by 25% with protein and by 25% with minerals and vitamins. The farmer's task is to arrange such a level of feeding that guarantees the synthesis of quality products (beef or milk) with minimal consumption of nutrients per unit of output.
Any diet for young cattle under 90 days of age, dairy cows, heifers, first-calf cows, cows with the second and further lactation is based on feeding norms.
High-yielding cows with 1 liter of milk excrete 35 g of protein, 40 g of fat, 48 g of milk sugar, 1.2 g of Ca, 0.9 g of P.
From 1500 to 2000 liters of blood per 1 hour pass through the udder for the production of milk. 15-20 tons of blood in 24 hours pass through the udder of cows with a capacity of 38 kg of milk per day. These 38 kgs of milk contain more than 1.36 kg of fat, 1.36 kg of protein, 1.82 kg of lactose and 0.23 kg of minerals. So, all these substances must come into the body with feed. One should bear in mind that a cow with a deficiency of calcium in the diet, will take this component from its own skeleton, so as not to affect the quality of products. That is why the highly productive part of the cattle herd — dairy cows — is the most sensitive group to the deficiency of nutrients, energy, fiber.
Soviet feeding standards are being supplemented by new approaches to cattle feeding.
In particular, attention is paid not to crude fiber at all, but to the normalization of its fractions — neutral-detergent (NDF) and acid-detergent (ADF) fibers.
When introducing protein into the diet, not only its amount is taken into account, but also its splittability, bioavailability (whether or not it is split in the rumen). The critical issue in the rationing of a protein is its amino acid profile. In addition to recommended for rationing lysine, methionine and tryptophan, it is probably necessary to take into account their provision with histidine. The issue of providing high-yielding cows with easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar and starch) and their rationing has not been finally resolved. Therefore, rations for cattle without the use of root crops, saving on quality sources of fiber (hay, straw, haylage, silage) seem outdated.