Diseases of broilers: why are they dangerous?
Fast growth rate, tasty tender meat, fast turnover of the stock are the obvious advantages of raising broilers. But the poultry has one disadvantage — it is susceptible to diseases. The situation is complicated by the high stocking density of the broiler. In view of all these facts, the issue of prevention of diseases in poultry crosses becomes especially relevant.

Varieties of diseases of broiler chickens
The most dangerous periods in broiler breeding are 0-5 days, 20-25 days, 35-40 days. At this time, special attention should be paid to the condition of the chicks, their activity, the quality of feed eating.

Aspergillosis. Disease is provoked by molds, which are actively developing due to the interruption of ventilation, high humidity. Upon contact with the respiratory tract, fungal spores cause vivid symptoms:
● stunted growth;
● weak movability;
● lowering the wings;
● dyspnea.

Without treatment, broilers die in 1-3 days. Death rate is 100%.

Marek's disease. The disease spreads within the stock. The disease most often affects young chickens of 20 weeks. The disease develops gradually, starting with the following symptoms:
● the bird hangs one or two wings at once;
● lowered tail;
● lameness;
● neck dislocation;
● liver damage;
● semi-paralysis (chickens fall to their feet);
● partial or complete loss of vision.

Mortality caused by Marek's disease is up to 30%. The peculiarity is that the disease is incurable.

Newcastle disease. The viral disease spreads rapidly within the stock. The causative agent of Newcastle disease can affect young chickens even inside the egg during the incubation period. Signs of the disease are:
● temperature up to 43-44 degrees;
● craw appearance. Moreover, there is no food in the craw;
● weakness;
● secretion of smelly mucus from the beak;
● liquid feces with traces of mucus, blood;
● open beak;
● sneezing;
● paralysis, paresis;
● the wings hang down;
● comb, beard become blue;
● growth retardation.

Bronchopneumonia. Common disease that develops in young chickens aged 14 to 30 days. Broiler chicks with bronchopneumonia:
● wheeze at night;
● characteristically extend the neck forward;
● breathe hard, opening the beak, even in cool weather.

Without therapy, chickens lose strength dramatically. They are not active, eat poorly, do not gain weight.

Hypovitaminosis A. Retinol deficiency adversely affects the growth process. Without vitamin A, the process of juvenile molting is slowed down, feathers do not grow well, coordination of movements is impaired. The poultry does not see food well in the evening. It is very easy to prevent hypovitaminosis. It is necessary to feed a specialized PMVS and fresh carrots.

Dyspepsia. Gastric juice of poultry affected by dyspepsia contains insufficient amounts of digestive enzymes. Even the best food is poorly digested. Deficiency of enzymes in digestive juice can be caused by:
● rancid or rotten feed;
● grain affected by fungi;
● stagnation of drinking water in waterers;
● hypovitaminosis;
● feeding chickens with food that does not correspond to their age. For example, a frugal farmer buys only growth feed for broilers, and gives it to everyone: day-old chicks, month-old chicks and broilers at the final stage of feeding.

Dyspepsia in broilers can be suspected by the foul-smelling feces of unnatural color (white, yellow, foamy, with mucus). Without treatment, the bird weakens and becomes lethargic.

Coccidiosis is a scourge of turkeys and broilers. The simplest microorganisms of coccidia infect young chickens aged 15 to 60 days. Coccidiosis affects the poultry intestines. Even the most bioavailable, high-quality food is simply not digested. The profitability of poultry production drops sharply.

Signs of coccidiosis are:
● feces with traces of blood;
● strong thirst;
● lethargy of the poultry;
● loss of appetite;
● disheveled plumage;
● pallor of the comb, earrings, beard.

Coccidiosis without treatment leads to 100% death of the poultry stock. Therefore, reliable producers of feed for broilers must introduce coccidiostats into the starter, growth compound feed in order to prevent the disease.

Colibacteriosis. Pathogenic bacteria affect the digestive system of the broiler. Disease symptoms:
● loss of appetite;
● weakness;
● indigestion;
● increased temperature.

Colibacillosis in broilers is treated by antibiotics in the form of watering.
Chicken pox. The virus is spread by parasites (lice, rodents). The pathogen affects the mucous membranes of the eyes, digestive system, respiratory tract.

Signs of chicken pox:
● breathing problems;
● red spots on the carcass, which in 2-3 days turn into scabs;
● weakness and apathy of the poultry;
● foul odor from infected poultry stock.
It is possible to cure chicken pox only in the initial stages. Veterinarians and zootechnicians recommend the use of boric acid and furacillin for treatment.

Mycoplasmosis. The disease spreads very quickly in the poultry stock. Mycoplasmosis is accompanied by high mortality. The death rate of young chickens is 25%, adults - up to 5%. Symptoms of the disease:
● abrupt weight loss;
● mucus from the nasal passages;
● breathing problems;
● secretion of mucus from the neck. Therefore, sick poultry stretches its neck.
Bird flu. The viral disease affects the respiratory tract of broilers. Signs of bird flu:
● increased body temperature;
● liquid stool;
● lethargy. The poultry is just standing in a cage.

The disease is not curable. Poultry stock where bird flu has been detected is being destroyed.

Pullorosis. Infectious disease of broilers. It develops especially acutely in young poultry stock. Adult poultry has no symptoms of pullorosis. Signs of the disease:
● diarrhea;
● heavy breathing;
● apathy of the poultry, lethargy.
At the first symptoms of the disease, broilers should be given antibiotics immediately.
Salmonellosis. The pathogen is transmitted by air, through feed, general equipment, waterers and feeders. Broiler hens are more susceptible to disease. Symptoms:
● redness and inflammation of the cloaca;
● swelling of the paws;
● diarrhea;
● swelling of the comb;
● thirst;
● decreased or complete loss of appetite.

The danger of salmonellosis is that it is an anthropozoan disease that is transmitted from poultry to humans. Therefore, special attention is paid to prevention with antisalmonella serum. Furazolidone is used to treat the disease.
2. Disease prevention
Preventive measures for raising poultry are:
● disinfection of chicken coops. Sanitary gap between batches of broilers kept in one room is 10 days. Lattices, waterers, feeders are washed, walls are whitewashed with lime;
● selection of quality feed. Specialized feeds or PMVS include biologically active substances, acidifiers, coccidiostats, which protect the digestive system, strengthen the immune system;
● choosing the right diet. Broilers can be fed the feed of own production or rely on ready-made feed solutions from producers. In the latter case, you get a guarantee that the feed does not contain mycotoxins, and the composition fully meets the needs of the broiler body in nutrients;
● providing birds with quality water. Installation of nipple waterers when raising a dozen broilers is not a profitable business. But you can change the water in stationary waterers 2 times a day, wash them once every 3 days, which is a cheap method of preventing poultry diseases;
● favorable conditions in the chicken coop (ventilation, lighting, proper temperature).
The precise diagnosis of the broiler disease can be made by a veterinarian only after the results of laboratory tests of feces and blood of a sick broiler.

3. How can you help the broiler chickens?
At the first symptoms of the disease, low activity of young chickens, veterinarians recommend giving glucose. The substance restores strength, strengthens the body of young chickens, activates their immune potential. In addition, aqueous glucose solution has antitoxic properties. Supplement glucose with ascorbic acid, probiotics, and get a treatment to restore the gastrointestinal tract. How to prepare a solution for treatment? Take 0.5 sachet of vitamin C, 3 tablespoons of sugar per 1.5 liters of warm water. Stir thoroughly until everything is dissolved.

The finished solution is poured into a container of 1 liter. Young chickens must get one liter per day.

A solution of pure glucose can be given to young chickens from the 1st day of life. In addition to the antitoxic effect, the sugar solution promotes the resorption of residual yolk, relieves post-incubation stress in broilers.

The farmer's task is to help build a stable immunity that will resist infection with pathogenic viruses and bacteria. It is especially important given the high placement density of young chickens. Therefore, broilers are often from the first days of life additionally watered with drugs:
Pharmazine. Soluble antibiotic is available in powder form. The preparation contains tylosin antibiotic. For watering, dilute 1 g of pharmazine in 1 liter of warm water;
Vetom. Drug with immunomodulatory effect. Additionally, Vetom has an antiviral, antibacterial effect. It is easy to prepare watering solution: Dilute 1 teaspoon of the drug in 3 liters of water;
Enroflon. Drugs with a complex effect. The drug has a good reputation due to the pronounced antibacterial effect. The drug is prepared by diluting with water in a ratio of 1: 3;
Gamavit. Improves egg-laying, strengthens immunity, promotes growth, development of young poultry;
● Baytril is one of the oldest and most effective drugs for the treatment and prevention of diseases of broilers of all ages. Baytril is used as a treatment for salmonellosis, streptococcus, necrotic enteritis;
Baycox 2.5%. The preparation belongs to coccidiostats. It is used for treatment and prevention. To prepare watering solution take 1 ml of the preparation and dissolve it in 1 liter of water. Broilers are watered with the solution during the day;
Biovit-80. Antibacterial preparation. It accelerates growth, prevents the development of hypo-, avitaminosis, protects against infections. It should be noted that if chickens receive enrofloxacin, they shouldn’t be given Biovit-80. Also, it is not recommended to add it in hot, warm feed;
Prodevit. Medicines for restoration of digestion in broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese. The preparation improves metabolism, eliminates avitaminosis due to the content of A, D3, E. To strengthen the immune system, it is recommended to water the preparation for the first 10 days after birth at the rate of 1 drop per 1 chicken;
Baycox is a coccidiostatic, used in the growing of broilers, turkeys. Preparation strengthens the immune system, improves digestion, increases the level of digestibility of feed, minimizes the effects of post-incubation stress. After using the preparation, young broilers are actively gaining weight.

It is easy to grow a tender broiler if you use a specialized full-ration starter from the first days, replacing it further with growth feed. So the poultry gets the necessary set of vitamins, nutrients, protection against diseases.

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