The daily diet of a dairy cow
As the experience of many generations of livestock breeders suggests, good feeding is expensive, and bad feeding is ruinous. There is still controversy about the optimal supply of dairy cows with feed and water. Naturally, the goal of every business owner is to raise milk yield. Researchers claim that you can increase the amount of milk 3 times by twice increasing the feeding.
High-yielding cow is able to convert at least 40% of energy into milk, while low-yielding cow — only 25%. As a result, feeding low-yielding animals can be 1.5 to 2 times more expensive.
A cow with a live weight of 450 to 500 kg in winter requires 6-8 kg of quality hay. At the same time, 2 kg can be replaced by the straw of spring crops. It is better to feed grasses-and-legumes hay.
The cow needs at least 6-8 kg of succulent feed per 100 kg of body weight per day. These feeds must be presented at least by two or three types. Large animals can be fed with 50 kg of these feeds per day. When making a diet, follow the rules of distribution of succulent feeds:
● sugar beets — from 12 to 45 kg, fodder beets — up to 30 kg per day;
● instead of beets, you can feed potatoes in the same quantities;
● 2-8 kg of carrots positively affect milk yields;
● silage should be fed at the rate of 6 - 8 kg per day, haylage — 2-3 kg.
Feeding of concentrates also needs to be controlled. If the animal produces 10 kg of milk per day, they should be present in the amount of 100 g per 1 liter of milk, in case of 10 - 15 kg of milk yield — from 100 to 150 g In order to get 15-20 liters of milk per day, the cow must eat up to 200 g of concentrate per liter, milk yield of 25 liters and above requires from 300 to 350 g of concentrate.
An example of the daily diet of a dairy cow with a live weight of 500 kg is as follows:
● hay — 8 kg;
● spring straw — 2 kg;
● succulent feed — 30 kg;
● concentrates — 3 kg;
● table salt - from 50 to 60 g;
● part of food and kitchen waste (the amount can be adjusted independently).
With such a feed balance, the animal will produce 15 liters of milk per day.
It is important to understand that in the first 2-3 months the cow is milked, so when feeding you need to focus not on physical milk yields, but on the future yields. It means that you need to feed 2-3 times more than if the feed was calculated on the actual amount of milk. Thus, feed is an advance of future milk yields.
Lactating cows should eat at the scheduled time in the morning, afternoon and evening.
In summer, feeding greatly simplifies grazing. During the day the dairy animal eats from 70 to 80 kg of green grass. If it is not possible to graze for a long time, the animals need to be provided with freshly cut greens. But it should not be stored — the next day after mowing the grass loses its properties, and in some cases can be dangerous to the body.
In conclusion, we would like to add that some feeds adversely affect the taste of milk. Therefore, you need to make sure that the cow does not eat wormwood, which gives bitterness, peas, beans, beet tops and turnips. The unpleasant smell of milk appears if a cow eats wild onion and garlic.